Monaco’s Citizenship by Investment Visas
Monaco is a small country located in the French Riviera that has a large reputation. Its exquisite beaches, temperate climate, and infamous city of Monte Carlo have attracted wealthy investors, travellers, and celebrities alike. The nation has a population of about 33,000 residents, composed of Monaco nationals and expatriates from Franc, Italy, Great Britain, the U.S., Canada, Australia, and South Africa, making Monaco truly a home away from home for many foreign nationals.
With French as its official language and English and Italian widely spoken and taught in schools, Monaco enjoys a uniquely multicultural and multilingual society. The nation boasts excellent school systems, well-established transportation avenues, and a thriving economy. Due to these benefits, foreign investors are turning to Monaco as their preferred destination to move both their money and their family.
How to Become a Monaco Citizen through Investment
To become a Monaco permanent resident (and ultimately a citizen), the foreign national must meet multiple requirements. First, the foreign national must invest a minimum of 1,000,000 euros – 500,000 euros of which must be deposited and kept in a Monaco bank. The other 500,000 euros must be put towards the purchase of a deed of property worth that amount. Additionally, the foreign national must also prove to the Monaco government that the national has sufficient bank funds to provide for the national’s residence in the country (verified by references from the nation’s bank) and that the national has the means to procure adequate accommodations in the country.
Finally, the prospective investor must possess a clean criminal record. After the investor provides this evidence to the Monaco government, an immigration official will conduct a personal interview with the investor.
Upon approval at the interview, the investor and family are given permanent resident status. As permanent residents, they are eligible to live, work, and travel in Monaco and in ten years they may apply for citizenship (through a process called naturalisation) as long as the family spent at least 6 months of every year physically residing in Monaco. Additionally, as a resident, the investor may establish his/her own commercial enterprise in any of Monaco’s economic sectors. Some of the country’s most successful industries include ship management, private banking, financial services, and asset management.
The Naturalization Process
Foreign nationals seeking to become Monaco citizens must meet the following requirements. First, they must have continuously resided in the country for ten years. Second, they must no longer be subject to conscription or military service in another country. Third, they must renounce any foreign nationality they currently possess. Monaco does not recognise any dual nationality.
Importantly, because Monaco strictly forbids any holding of dual nationality, there are multiple ways that individuals may lose their Monaco citizenship. Citizenship may be forfeited if the individual acquires a separate foreign nationality, performs military service for a foreign nation without the permission of the Monaco government, or is otherwise deemed to have compromised or harmed the security of the country.
The Monaco government may deny a naturalisation application even if the investor meets all of the requirements. These denials may not be appealed, though the investor may reapply multiple times.
Benefits of Monaco Citizenship
While Monaco is a member of the United Nations, it is currently not a member of the European Union, so the country is empowered to make its own laws, regulations, and directives concerning taxes and other banking and financial matters. Monaco citizenship offers many financial and economic benefits that entice foreign investors to relocating to this nation. For example, Monaco does not impose any income tax, wealth tax, local tax, or capital gains tax on its citizens. Additionally, the country collects a corporate income tax and inheritance tax that is very small in comparison to other countries. The country is party to only one tax treaty and that treaty is with France.
Because Monaco strictly forbids dual nationality, investors must consider how renunciation of their previous nationality (which may affect their ability to return to their home country) and a host of other factors when deciding where to commit their funds and where to relocate their families. It is advisable to work with a knowledgeable immigration attorney on these matters in order to find the right investment scheme and location that works best for the foreign national.
Monaco offers many advantages, including:
- No income or capital gains tax for non-French residents
- No double taxation agreements
- High confidentiality
- Attractive lifestyle and ideal location on the French Riviera
- Excellent access by road, sea and the international airport of Nice
- Very stable real estate market
We facilitate all aspects of moving your personal residence to another country. We specialise in the world's top locations, for private residence in view of personal taxation, the business environment, and the overall quality of life.
We will analyse your situation, inform you of the options open to you, develop a plan of action to help you achieve your goal and then make it happen. We deal with government procedures quickly and efficiently on your behalf, based on professional expertise and years of experience.
To establish yourself or your business in a new country will require securing relationships with key partners such as government officials, bankers and corporate professionals. You need experienced consultants to build a network of contacts and help you to become established in your new environment.
The specialised services of Haskew Law are a resource and complement to major law and consulting firms. We can help other firms and their clients with the unique and specific details required by the immigration and business relocation process and related tax planning.
Establishing A Trust Or Company In Monaco
The following is a brief explanation of how Monaco Law 214 can be used. It is based on a presentation given by James P. Duffy, III, to the Second International Economic Forum held in Monaco on March 28-30, 1996.
The concept of a trust is generally not known in civil law, nor is it well understood in civil law countries, such as France. However, the trust is a very important vehicle in those parts of the world whose law depends on what is usually called common law.
Trusts are usually formed by a grantor or settlor who transfers property to a trustee or trustees who agree to hold that property and invest it for the benefit of other persons, the beneficiaries. The trustee's agreement is usually reflected in a document called a trust agreement or trust deed. The common law imposes very strict fiduciary duties on trustees. Normally, trusts must be of a finite duration. In most United States jurisdictions, such as New York, for example, the duration of a trust may only be for the duration of the lives of those living at the creation of the trust plus twenty-one years.
In its simplest terms, a trust is the legal ownership of property by one person for the benefit of another. However, in practice, the modern trust is a very carefully conceived and executed plan of asset management and asset deposition that is developed by our team of advisors who typically include lawyers, investment advisors, and professional trustees. For example, a trust could provide that income is accumulated until the settlor reached a certain age. The income could then be paid to the settlor and his wife for their lives. Following that, the income could be paid to their children for their lives, and, on the children's' death to grandchildren, and, on the grandchildren's' death, the principal then distributed to great-grandchildren.
It is also possible to provide for discretionary payments of income and/or principal, either to specific individuals, such as a spouse or to classes of individuals, such as descendants. The discretionary standards can be carefully spelt out in the trust agreement, such as for "education", "medical emergencies", or the like. The standards can be very broad, such as "to start a business", or "to buy a home".
Where a trust is expected to exist for several generations, a corporate trustee is usually essential to ensure continuity, particularly of asset management. To make sure trust administration reflects the needs and interests of the family in so far as distributions are concerned, one or more co-trustees who are familiar with the family can be added.
Managing trusts primarily involves two aspects:
(1) the prudent investment of trust funds pursuant to fiduciary standards, and
(2) the paying of trust funds, and the income thereon -- that is, the results of investment -- to the beneficiaries of the trust as specified in the trust agreement, again according to fiduciary standards.
Monaco is particularly suited to both these tasks. Monaco has well developed financial centre resources that make it easy to manage funds and to invest them virtually anywhere in the world. Haskew Law can efficiently perform the required fiduciary duties to the beneficiaries of the trusts they manage, usually at costs that compare very favourably with those of other jurisdictions.
As noted, trusts are not generally recognised in civil law countries. Thus, many of the trusts that are administered in Monaco are trusts that are created under the laws of other countries and have no direct contact with Monaco, except that the trust and its funds may be administered here. However, there is the possibility of creating a trust in Monaco that, in addition to being administered there, will also be recognised in most countries as well.
Monaco has enacted a special trust law, Law 214 of 1936. This law enables anyone to establish a trust in Monaco if he or she may create trusts under his or her own national law. A Law 214 trust avoids the provisions of Monégasque Estate Law and the payment of estate duties. At least one of the trustees must be chosen from a list established by the President of the Monégasque Cour d'Appel. However, one or more co-trustees can be freely chosen provided that the appointment is in conformity with Law governing the trust. The trust may be created either inter-vivos - that is, by agreement - or by will.
By the terms of Law 214, the trust purposes and, the governing law of the trust, override any contrary provisions of Monégasque law or public policy, such as forced heir-ship. Thus, the Law 214 trust can be a useful instrument for overcoming restrictions on freedom of testamentary disposition in local succession law. This is particularly important for people who are domiciled in a forced heir-ship jurisdiction if their national law has a conflict of law provision that refers to the law of domicile. This would be the case in most of the States of the United States and also, I believe, in England. For example, Monaco law looks to the law of nationality regarding the distribution of non-real property assets at death. Thus, according to Monaco law, a person from New York who is domiciled in Monaco would have the disposition of his non-real property assets governed by New York law. However, New York law says the disposition of these assets is governed by the law of the domicile. Thus, New York would refer back to Monaco law with its forced heir-ship provisions. The Law 214 trust avoids this result for the assets in the trust.
As a practical matter, under Law 214, almost anyone of a common law nationality -- for example, the English, Americans, Australians, Canadians -- can establish a trust in Monaco. It does not necessarily follow that that grantor's particular national law need be the governing law of the trust so long the national law permits some other trust law to be adopted. Thus, an American from New York might select Massachusetts law, rather than New York law as the governing law of the trust. However, it is generally wise for there to be some reasonable relationship between the law adopted and the grantor, and/or the trustee or trustees.
Theoretically, under Law 214, only the person who creates the trust needs to be a national of a common law country. The trust instrument can provide that, once the trust is in existence, any other person, such as the grantor's wife of a different nationality, can add assets to it, provided those assets are acceptable to the trustee. The trust agreement could even require the trustee to accept assets from the grantor's wife, from a parent, from a parent's estate, and so on. Thus, subsequent grantors to the trust might well include someone whose national law would not have permitted him or her to create a trust in Monaco. Thus, theoretically, for example, a trust can be established by a Canadian for the intended beneficiaries of his German spouse and thereafter substantial transfers can be made to that trust by the spouse and the spouse's family.
Once the Law 214 trust has been established in Monaco, the trust funds can be invested as appropriate with no tax liability in Monaco. The trust can also, if appropriate, establish a holding company in almost any jurisdiction. In other words, the trust fund can be managed substantially the same way as a trust is operated in jurisdictions like the Bahamas, Bermuda, Jersey, or other popular trust administration jurisdictions. The nature of the trust investments may, of course, give rise to withholding taxes at the source but investments that pay dividends or interest-free of withholding tax would accrue to the trust completely free of tax anywhere.
The creation of a Law 214 trust is subject to registration tax in Monaco. The rate varies according to the number of beneficiaries. At present, the rate is 1.3% for one beneficiary, 1.5% for two, and 1.7% for more than two (with lower rates applicable to certain Monégasque securities). For inter-vivos trusts, the tax is due at the time the trust instrument is registered. For trusts created in wills, the tax is payable on completion of the administration of the estate. It is calculated on the net assets paid into the trust. However, if the trust instrument so states, in lieu of a single payment at the above rates, the tax can be yearly payments equal to 0.2% of the current value of the trust. The single tax payment or the smaller indefinite annual payments are in the place of all death and/or gift taxes on the trust assets.
To form a Law 214 trust:
1. The trust agreement or Will shall be executed in Monégasque notarial form.
2. At least one of the trustees must be selected from a list of corporations with trust powers approved and maintained by the Court in Monaco. This list includes a large number of major banks and trust companies in Monaco, many of which as already noted are represented here today. There may be one or more individual co-trustees. If an individual serves as a trustee of only one Law 214 trust, no government approval is required.
3. There must be annexed to the trust agreement or will an opinion from an approved lawyer of the settlor's country certifying that the trust is valid under that country's law.
This is, of course, a very brief overview of the picture. It is clear, however, that anyone seriously considering setting up a trust should also give very careful consideration to Monaco as a jurisdiction for administering a trust.
Creating a company in Monaco
Monaco is a European state located in southern France. Based on services, tourism and real estate, the Principality has a thriving economy which has made Monaco one of the wealthiest countries in the world.
Monaco is an attractive State for incorporation, offering a number of different legal structures which make it possible to conduct a large range of activities, as well as wealth management, thanks to the use of fiduciary or commercial companies.
Points to bear in mind
Monaco is a particularly attractive jurisdiction for high-income individuals or companies planning to conduct business locally.
Companies registered in Monaco who derive more than 25% of their income from outside the country are subject to a 33% tax.
Companies registered in Monaco who conduct 100% of their business activities in Monaco are not subject to any tax on profits.
Therefore, opening a company in Monaco is only attractive tax-wise if the shareholders are not French citizens and if their business is conducted within Monaco, in which case they are exempt from taxes.
Monaco tax regulations are highly favourable to individuals. Except for French citizens, who must pay income tax on income from France, individuals are not subject to any income tax. Monaco also has very favourable succession laws.
Corporate tax regulations are also advantageous, particularly for business conducted locally. In the latter case, companies are not subject to any tax on profits. Additionally, they can engage in international activities and remain exempt from taxes if these activities generate less than 25% of the company’s total revenue.
Accounts must be kept. Specifically, a balance sheet and profit & loss statement must be issued yearly.
The accounting rules are strict and required whether the company is taxed or not.
Terms and conditions
There are no special requirements to comply with for creating a company in Monaco. Nevertheless, in some cases authorization may be required from the local authorities to form a company depending on its purported activities and corporate structure.
The most common types of companies in Monaco are SA (company limited by shares) and SARL (limited liability company). It is also possible to set up an SCS (limited partnership), SCA (partnership limited by shares), SNC (general partnership), or non-trading company. Holding companies, fiduciary entities, commercial agents and administrative offices may also be opened.
Share capital is generally required to open a company in Monaco. Opening an SA requires €150,000. To open a SARL, only €15,000 is required.
A multi-currency corporate bank account will be opened, with online web access, a Visa or MasterCard debit card, and all other standard payment methods.
Directors may be of any nationality.
The company’s shareholders may be of any nationality. The company may also be held by a holding company.
Required time frame
It takes two weeks to open a company in Monaco. This time period may be extended in the event of a prior request for approval to conduct certain financial or banking activities. Using a ready-made company will shorten this time period.
A holding company may be opened in Monaco which can in turn own, either directly or indirectly, company or membership shares of other trading or non-trading companies.
Each year the company must submit a statement of accounts and declare its revenues, as well as have a local commercial domicile or premises.